apology depends not only on the choice of an apology strategy but also on the number and type of strategies used in an apology that consist of an IFID only (I am sorry ) does not have the apologetic power of another that contains an IFID and an intensification maker (I ‘ m deeply sorry ). Alongside the use of adverbials ( e. g. very ) with the IFID and the repetition of the IFID, Blum- Kulka and Olshtain (1984) classified ‘concern for the hearer’ and use of more than one strategy as intensification using multiple strategies as an intention of intensification is depend on the type strategies used.
Denial of responsibility: Denial of responsibility is the last apology strategy investigated in this study. Expressions in this category range from those in which respondents avoid taking responsibility to expression to which they directly blame another party.
1.1. Statement of the Problem
Men and women not only differ with each other biologically but also they are different in terms of the cognitive performances (fereshteh rahimzadehgan, 2008, p. 50).
Generally in the today societies, there is not an important obstacle in the lingual communication between men and women, but there are some differences in the social role of the both sexes; then, some differences in their elements structure and finally in their lingual behavior can also be observed. These differences can- be ignored in some of societies and may be limited to the certain pronunciation characteristics and idioms, but in the other societies these differences are important and should be regarded, and they include a series of the sound, grammar and vocabulary characteristics. In the view of some of linguists, the lingual differences of two sexes have arisen from the social gap, but in most of the societies men and women communicate with each other liberally and the social obstacles are very few and they haven’t any social effect on the extent of their relationship; thus, we cannot attribute the difference between the species relate to the gender to the very geographic, ethnic and class species (vida nooshin far 2008, p. 183).
The society and social indices always have affected the language so; we always witness the internal disorders and differences of one lingual society. Some indices such as gender, age, education, class and social state determine the kind of language application in the society (Neda Hedayat, 2005, p. 2).
Since the mid of 1970S, the linguists recognized the variables in the language that had been studied in the different social situations. Among these variables, gender factor was considered as the main variable in the analysis of the speech language that is more varied to the writing language. The differences related to the gender are a main issue in the human life and it is not wonder, if it has shown its effect on language. In some of languages, some of vocabularies and phonological of the speech are used only by men and some others by women. Sometimes these differences not only depend on the gender of speaker but also the gender of listener (Ibid, p. 2). Generally, we can say that the manner of articulation is affected by the social relations between men and also the kind of the society they live in it.
In any society speech differences between men and women are varied in term of belief, culture and life kind. It is not separated from this issue, Iran, a society we live in. The researches have shown that the kind of utterance is almost differed between men and women in our country. We can investigate these different from various aspects. In other words, not only men and women have their own characteristics in their speech kind but these features are varied regarding their bilingualism, age, job, social class, state and educational level. Investigation of the effect of each of these social factors on the language variations needs wide research.
In many societies some of the most important of these sociolinguistic divisions are associated with differences in social prestige, wealth, and power. Bankers clearly do not talk the same as busboys, and professors don’t sound like plumbers. They signal the social differences between them by features of their phonology, grammar, and lexical choice, just as they do extra linguistically by their choices in 1.3.
1.2. Research questions
1. Is there any difference between the gender of the participants and their apology strategies?
2. Is there any difference between the age of participants and their apology strategy?
3. Is there any difference between the language of the participants and their apology strategy?
4. Is there any difference between the education of the participants and their apology strategy?
1.3. Research hypothesizes
1. There is no meaningful difference between the gender of the participants and their apology strategy.
2. There is no meaningful difference between the age of the participants and apology strategy.
3. There is no meaningful difference between the language of the participants and apology strategy.
4. There is no meaningful difference between the education of the participants and apology strategy.
1.4. Significance of the study
“Apologies are defined as primarily social acts, carrying effective meaning” (Holmes, 1990, P.1550). According to Brown and Levinson, apologies are politeness strategies. An apology is primarily a social act. It is aimed at maintaining good relation between participants. To apologize is to act politely, both in vernacular sense and in more technical sense of paying attention to the addressee’s face needs (Brown and Levinson, 1987). An apology is a fundamental speech act which is a part of human communication occurs in every culture to maintain good relations between interlocutors.
Gender and language studies in teaching profession are for promoting the equal behavior of male and female learner. Varieties and differences are used in men and women communication styles as well as for analyzing further communicative problem for woman engaged in men jobs. Hence, the present study seeks to examine the speech act apologizing among Kurdish bilinguals in Ilam, Iran.
1.5. Definition of technical terms
The important terms used throughout this study are as follows:
Apology strategies are the methods used by individuals to perform the speech act of apology such as statement of remorse and reparation. Statement of remorse is the strategy in which the wrong doer shows that she/he has done something wrong. Reparation is the strategy in which the wrong doer tries to repair the damage he/she has incurred on other and offers words that may cause the harm done to be forgotten (Olshtain and Cohen 1983, p. 234).
1. A person who knows and uses only one language.
2. A person who has an active knowledge of only one language, thought perhaps a passive knowledge of others ( G. Richard Tucker2003, p. 301).
A person who uses at least two languages with some degree of proficiency. In everyday use bilingual usually a mean a person who speak, reads, or understands two language equally well (a balanced bilingual), but a bilingual person usually has a better knowledge of one language than another. For example, he/she may:
a) Be able to read and write in only one language.
b) Use one language in different types of situation or DOMAINS, e. g. one language at home another at work.
c) Use one language for talking about school life and the other for talking about personal feelings.
The ability to read and write a second and foreign language does not necessarily imply a degree of bilingualism Such as the inhabitants of a particular region or nation (Blum and Kulka 1984, p. 65).
The use of two languages by an individual is known as individual bilingualism, and the knowledge of two languages by members of a whole community or the presence of two languages within a society is called societal bilingualism. When two languages or language varieties occur in a society, each having very different communicative functions in different social domains it is known as diglossia. ( G. Richard.Tucker 2003, p. 303).
Refers to sex as either a biological or socially constructed category. Gender is a personal sexual identity of an individual’s, regardless the person biological and outward sex, and refer to the socially constructed roles, activities, and attributes that a given society consider appropriately for men and women .Gender referring to the social and cultural elaboration of the sex difference – a process that restrict our social roles, opportunities and expectations. Since the process begins at birth, it could be argued that ‘gender ‘is the more appropriate term to use for the category than ‘sex’.
A speech act is an utterance that serves a function in communication. We perform speech act when we apology, greeting, request, complaint, invitation, compliment, or refusal. A speech act might contain just one word, as in “sorry” to perform apology. (Olshtain 1998, p. 152)
IFID (illocutionary force indicating device)
IFID is a category including the explicit use of apology expressions that mean sorry, forgive me, etc. (Blum-Kulka and Olshtain 1984, p. 206). It consists of categories like: explanation, taking responsibility, offer of repair, intensification of apology, concern for the hearer, and denial of responsibility. Some examples in Persian are:
moteassefam (I am sorry)
bebakhshid (forgive me)
and ozr mikhaam (excuse me)