invoking Allah name, intensification, minimization, and humor. This work can have implications in intercultural communication.
Tehrani et al. (2012) investigated the different primary and secondary strategies the Iranian EFL students used in different situations and the effect of gender on this. A questionnaire was developed based on Sugimoto’s (1995) to compared apology strategies used by male and female students, only gender was examined as a variable. The results showed that the statement of remorse was the strategy most frequently used by male and female respondents across the sample and female participants used this strategy more frequently than male participants. Moreover the four primary strategies used by the male respondents were accounts, compensation reparation, negative assessment of responsibility (30%, 20%, 15%, 15%, respectively), while those used by female respondents were compensation. Showing lack of intent to do harm, accounts, reparation (20%, 20%, 15%, and 10%, respectively). Male respondents tend to used negative assessment of responsibility more than their females, counterparts (15% and 5%, respectively). Female respondents used the strategy of promise not to repeat offense in 10% of the situations, while their male counterparts did not use this strategy at all.

Chapter three
Methodology

3.1. Overview
The purpose of this study was to examine apology strategies among Kurdish bilinguals in Ilam. This chapter open with a review of questions, then instrument of data gathering, participants, at last data analysis and procedure section are presented in this chapter.

3.2. Research questions
1. Is there any difference between gender of participants and their apology strategy?
2. Is there any difference between age of participants and their apology strategy?
3. Is there any difference between language of participants and their apology strategy?
4. Is there any difference between education of participants and their apology strategy?

3.3. Participants
The current study involved 80 subjects of Kurdish bilinguals in Ilam, Iran, consisting of 40 male and 40 female subjects ( 58 bilinguals, 22 monolinguals, 41 above 30 years, 39 under30 years, 47 B.A and above B.A, 33 under B.A ) that were chosen randomly to participate in this study.
3.4. Instrument
The data of this study was collected through a controlled elicitation method based on questionnaire which is a modified version of ‘Discourse completion Test ‘(hereafter DCT) used in CCSARP (Blum-Kulak 1984). This type of questionnaire enables the researcher to reach large number of respondents and statistically control for variables and analyze the data accordingly. Research on the methods used in speech act and pragmatics studies pin pointed the limitations of the DCT in comparison to that of naturally occurring data: the DCT responses are found to be shorter, less face-attentive and less emotional (Gloat 2003). In spite of its disadvantages , the researchers believe that the DCT can be useful instrument for providing a preliminary look at cultural preferences in the performance of apologies, such as the present study attempts to do. Three different levels of social distance were used to roughly represent different degrees of familiarity between participants. Closeness is represented by the relationship between friends, distant relationship by participants who do not know each other (strangers) and middle status of social distance is represented by acquaintance. Power is represented by three levels; high-low (the speaker has power over the hearer), low-high (the hearer has power over the speaker) and equals (no participant has power over the other). Offenses represent different kinds. Offenses used in these situations are described as serious or mild. Judgment of the offense as serious or mild is determined without looking at the offense in its context.

3.5. Collection data
The test is composed of twenty situations representing different social contexts (see Appendix). In order to identify the apology strategies used, the researcher used tables to clarify the method used to show the other apology strategies employed in each situations and their percentage. In the present study descriptive and inferential statistical techniques such as T- test have been used to show the meaningfulness the relationship between gender, age, language and education of respondents and their apology strategies.
First of all, a questionnaire was designed base on Blum- Kulka( 1984 ) and some articles. This questionnaire consisted of 20 different situations. It was designed in Persian and participants were asked to answer in Persian. The data of this study was collected base on strategies that respondents answered in each situation and each strategy were classified base on models that used in western study about apology strategies. Collecting and analyzing the data was done in April, May and June 2014 and the participants were chosen randomly in Ilam.

این مطلب رو هم توصیه می کنم بخونین:   پایان نامه با واژگان کلیدی semantic، motivation

Chapter four
Results and Discussion

4.1. Overview
This chapter presented finding that serve as answers to the research hypotheses of this study. First, the demographic information related to subjects is presented. Then descriptive statistics regarding to the all groups and their performance and investigating the research hypotheses are discussed.

4.2. Demographic statistics
4.2.1. Demographic statistics regarding the age of the participants
The selected respondents to answer the questions were 80 male and female subjects who were randomly chosen to participate in the study. The following table shows the frequency of the respondents in terms of gender.

Table4.1: Frequency distribution of respondents in terms of Gender

Frequency
Percent
Cumulative Percent

Male
40
50.0
50.0

Female
40
50.0
100.0

Total
80
100.0

Figure 4.1. Frequency of respondents based on gender

4.2.2. Demographic statistics regarding the age of the participants
The selected respondents to answer the questions were 80 above 30 years and under 30 years participants who were randomly chosen to participate in this study. The following table shows the frequency of the respondents in terms of age.

Table4.2. Frequency distribution of respondents in terms of Age group

Frequency
Percent
Cumulative Percent

Above 30 years
41
51.25
51.25

Under 30 years
39
48.75
100.00

Total
80
100.0

Figure 4.2. Frequency of participants based on age

4.2.3. Demographic statistics regarding the language of participants
The selected respondents to answer the questions were 80 bilinguals and monolinguals subjects who were randomly chosen to participate in the study. The following table shows the frequency of the respondents in terms of language.

Table4.3. Frequency distribution of respondents in terms of language

Frequency
Percent
Cumulative Percent

bilinguals
58
72.5
72.5

monolinguals
22
27.5
100.0

Total
80
100.0

Figure4.3. Frequency of respondents based on language

4.2.4. Demographic statistics regarding the education of the participants
The selected respondents to answer the questions were 80 subjects above and under B.A who were randomly chosen to participate in this study. The following table shows the frequency of respondents in terms of education.

Table4.4: Frequency distribution of respondents in terms of education group

Frequency
Percent
Cumulative Percent

B.A and above B.A
47
58.7
58.7

Under B.A
33
41.3
100.0

Total
14
100.0

Figure4.4. Frequency of participants based on education

4.3. Descriptive statistics
As stated earlier, six main apology strategies were employed by the Kurdish native speakers which are discussed one by one in the following. First, different groups’ performance of “intensification” is presented in table 4.5.
Table4.5. the average and standard deviation of “intensification” scores used by all groups
20 situations
Average
St. deviation
Male
2.2
.85
Female
0.0
0.0
Above 30years
3.14
1.1
Under 30years
2.2
.85
Bilinguals
3.6
.98
Monolinguals
2.2
8.5
B .A and above B.A
3.6
9.8
Under B.A
3.6
9.8

The above table shows the average score obtained by respondents on intensification in 20 different situations. As it can be observed, the respondents above 30 years have had the better performance.

Table 4.6.The average and standard deviation of “explanation” scores used by all groups:
20 situations
Average
St. deviation
Male
38.78
8.85
Female
61.18
15.55
Above 30years
55.32
13.1
Under 30years
44.68
12.63
Bilinguals
56.82
12.76

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