Monolinguals
43.12
10.12
B.A and above B.A
67.7
17.2
Under B.A
32.3
7.69

The above table illustrates the average score obtained by respondents on “explanation” in 20 different situations. As it can be observed, the respondents above B.A have had better performance.

Table 4.7.the average and standard deviation of all groups’ scores on “taking responsibility”
20 situations
Average
ST. deviation
Male
44/4
10/29
Female
65/6
16/11
Above 30 years
44/7
10/35
Under 30years
63/3
15/83
Bilinguals
77/25
18/4
Monolinguals
29/75
7/2
B.A and above B.A
61/8
14/69
Under B.A
39/2
9/5

The above table demonstrates the average score obtained by respondents on “taking responsibility” in 20 different situations. This table shows that bilinguals obtained the highest average.

Table4.8: The average and standard deviation of all groups’ scores on “concern for the hearer”
20 situations
Average
St . deviation
Male
8/12
2/23
Female
7/26
1/87
Above 30 years
15/33
3/45
Under 30 years
12/11
3/01
Bilinguals
23/17
5/49
Monolinguals
44/26
9/23
B.A and above B.A
13/03
3/65
Under B.A
16/44
4/02

The above table shows the average and standard deviation score obtained by respondents on “concern for the hearer” in 20 different situations. As it can be observed, the monolingual have had the best performance.

Table 4.9: The average and standard deviation of all groups’ scores on “denial of responsibility”
20 situations
Average
St . deviation
Male
48/7
11/44
Female
51/3
13/35
Above30years
60/65
14/0
Under30years
39/35
8/96
Bilinguals
72/12
18/89
Monolinguals
17/88
7/73
B.A and above B.A
38/6
8/06
Under B.A
61/4
14/52

The above table shows the average and standard deviation score obtained by respondents on “denial of responsibility” in 20 situations. As it can be observed, bilinguals have had best performance.

Table4.10: The average and standard deviation of all groups’ score on “offer of repair”
20 situations
Average
St . deviation
Male
44/8
10/23
Female
46/12
10/85
Above 30 years
54/5
12/36
Under 30 years
45/5
12/53
Bilinguals
47/45
11/12
Monolinguals
42/65
9/93
B.A and above B.A
51/23
13/33
Under B.A
48/77
12/92

The above table shows the average and standard deviation score obtained by respondents on “offer of repair” in 20 different situations. As it can be observed, the respondents above B.A have had a better performance.

4.3. Investigating the research hypotheses
As stated in chapter one, in this study four main hypotheses were formulated which are discussed one by one.
4.3.1. First hypothesis
“There is no meaningful relationship between gender of respondents and their apology strategies. “Since apology strategies includes six categories (intensification, explanation, taking responsibility, concern for the hearer, denial of responsibility, offer of repair), so the above hypothesis can be formulated in six sub – hypothesis which are dealt with one by one.

1. There is no meaningful relationship between gender and intensification strategy.
To deal with this issue, T-test has been employed.

Table 4.11: T- test for investigating the relationship between gender and “intensification” strategy
Male

Female
Test Value

Mean
T
df
Sig.
(2-tailed)
Mean Difference
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower
Upper

2.92

2.123
0.012
19
.000
1.5411
0.2541
0.6541

According to the obtained results (table 4.11) on “intensification” score used by male and female, it is seen that there is no meaningful relationship between gender of respondents and intensification strategy, since the obtained T of respondents is 0.012, and the error coefficient is less than 5 percent, so this hypothesis is accepted in Alfa level (5%).
2. There is no meaningful difference between gender and explanation.
T-test is used to probe the relationship between gender and explanation strategy.
Table 4.12: T- test for investigating the relationship between gender and explanation strategy

female male
Test Value

Mean
T
df
Sig.
(2-tailed)
Mean Difference
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower
Upper

0.98
0.022
19
.000
1.2214
0.4122
0.6517

0.71

As it can be figured out from table 4.12 that there is no meaningful relationship between gender and “explanation” strategy, since the obtained T of respondents is 0.022 and the error coefficient is less than 5 percent, therefore this hypothesis is accepted in Alfa level (5%).
3. There is no meaningful difference between gender and taking responsibility.
T-test is utilized to prove the relationship between gender and “taking responsibility”.
Table 4.13: T- test for investigating the relationship between gender and taking responsibility

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female
male
Test Value

Mean
T
Df
Sig.
(2-tailed)
Mean Difference
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower
Upper

4.111
0.000
19
.000
1.4454
0.4512
0.9032

4.001

As displayed in above table (4.13), the obtained T from male and female regards to “taking responsibility” strategy is 0.000, since the error coefficient is less than 5%, so this hypothesis is accepted in Alfa level (5%).
4. There is no meaningful difference between gender and concern for the hearer strategy.
T-test is employed to probe the relationship between gender and “concern for the hearer” strategy.
Table 4.14: T-test for investigating the relationship between gender and concern for the hearer

Test Value

Mean
T
df
Sig. (2-tailed)
Mean Difference
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower
Upper
male- female
1.23
0.001
19
.000
0.7544
0.3134
0.6908

1.12

As shown in table 4.14, the T obtained from respondents to use “concern for the hearer” strategy is 0.001, therefore it can be said that there is no meaningful relationship between gender and this strategy, since the error coefficient is less than 5%, so this hypothesis is accepted in Alfa level (5%).

5. There is no meaningful difference between gender and denial of responsibility.
Table 4.15: T- test for investigating the relationship between gender and denial of responsibility

Test Value

Mean
T
df
Sig.
(2-tailed)
Mean Difference
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower
Upper
female
male
2.49
0.000
19
.000
1.854
0.4512
0.9032

2.24

Table 4.15 illustrated that the obtained T from participants on “denial of responsibility” is 0.000, since the error efficient is less than 5%, so this hypothesis is accepted in Alfa level (5%), and it is seen that there is no meaningful relationship between gender and this strategy.
6. There is no meaningful difference between gender of respondents and offer of repair strategy.
To deal with issue, T-test has been employed.
Table .4.16: T- test for investigating the relationship between gender and offer of repair

Test Value

Mean
T
df
Sig.
(2-tailed)
Mean Difference
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower
Upper
male- female
2.65
0.000
19
.000
0.2544
0.4412
0.8779

2.82

Table 4.16 Shows that there is no meaningful relationship between gender and offer of repair, since the obtained T from respondents is 0.000 and the error efficient is less than 5%, so this hypothesis is accepted in Alfa level (5%).

4.3.2. Second hypothesis:
“There is no meaningful relationship between age of participants and their apology strategy.
Since apology strategy includes six categories (intensification, explanation, taking responsibility, concern for the hearer, denial of responsibility, offer of repair), so the above hypothesis can be formulated in six sub – hypothesis which are:
1. There is no meaningful relationship between age of respondents and intensification strategy.
T-test is used to probe the relationship between age of respondents and intensification strategy.
Table 4.17: T- test for investigating the relationship between age and intensification strategy

Test Value

mean
T
df
Sig.
(2-tailed)
Mean Difference
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower
Upper
Under 30
Above 30
3.245
0.000
19
.000
1.7412
0.4125
0.8541

3.147

The findings of this table (4.17) states that there is no meaningful relationship between age of respondents and “intensification” strategy, since the obtained T of these groups are 0.000, and the error coefficient is less than 5%, therefore this hypothesis is accepted in Alfa level(5%).

2. There is no meaningful relationship between age of participants and explanation strategy.
This hypothesis is also tested by T-test.
Table 4.18: T- test for investigating the relationship between age and explanation strategy

Test Value

Mean
T
df
Sig. (2-tailed)
Mean Difference
95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower
Upper
Under 30
Above 30
1.94
0.003
19
.000
1.3322
0.3295
0.7521

1.36

Table 4.18 illustrates that the age of respondents is not an effective factor on “explanation” strategy used by participants, because obtained T from under and above 30 years are 0.003 and error coefficient is less than 5%, so this hypothesis is accepted in Alfa level (5%).
3. There is no meaningful relationship between age of respondents and taking responsibility

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